One argument for rolling back environmental regulations — as is occurring under the Trump administration — is that a lighter touch on industry will lift investment and economic growth. But increased pollution can also have long-term negative economic consequences. The effects on health are bad enough on their own, and are well understood. Pollution to groundwater from industrial waste can also harm health.
Less well understood is how this can affect things like educational and economic outcomes. Additionally, if school performance suffers as a result of health problems, that threatens long-term work and earnings prospects. Children are especially vulnerable to the effects of pollution. The fetal origins hypothesis posits that environmental conditions before birth can affect development, health and well-being.
Daniel Prinz, a Harvard Ph. Prinz said. I was a co-author on this paper, along with two Harvard health economists, David Cutler and Michael Chernew. The amendment to the Clean Air Act significantly reduced air pollution in certain areas, offering a research opportunity. A study published last year in the Journal of Political Economy looked at the level of pollution experienced by children born in each year between andand also their earnings 30 or more years later.
Another studyby authors from Northwestern and the University of Florida, examined the test scores of 13, children born in Florida between andwhen the E.
The children were all in families with one child born before and one after a nearby Superfund site cleanup. That meant one child was exposed, in utero, to a higher level of environmental toxicity than the other. The study found that children conceived within two miles of a Superfund site before it was cleaned up had lower elementary school standardized test scores than the siblings born later. They were also 40 percent more likely to repeat a grade; 6. One study of the 39 largest school districts in Texas found that when carbon monoxide levels were higher, children were more likely to be absent from school.
Janet Currie, a Princeton economist, was an author of the study.The editorial speaks to the Global Statement on Air Pollution and Health and How it may assist African countries to eliminate air pollution-related health impacts. The human health and economic costs of air pollution in Africa are high and rising. Between anddeaths from ambient particulate matter on the African continent rose by more than one third, and by was costing the African economy approximately USD billion annually [ 1 ].
Sources of human exposure to air pollution in Africa include anthropogenic and natural sources and occur in urban, rural, industrial and residential settings. The main contributors are industry, power generation, agricultural burning, transport and traffic, the combustion of wood, coal, paraffin and dung for household energy needs Figure 1a, bunpaved roads and burning of household solid waste in areas not provided with regular residential waste collection services.
Desert dust and wildfires are sources of particulate matter of natural origin [ 2 ]. Certain vulnerable groups may be simultaneously exposed to air pollution from multiple sources — sometimes at highly elevated concentrations [ 3 ]. For example, people living in informal settlements without a connection to the electricity grid, located close to mine tailings facilities or industrial sites, and in areas with unpaved roads Figure 1c.
Patriarchal systems and household power dynamics may play a role in women and children being particularly vulnerable to exposure to noxious air pollutants [ 7 ]. Tackling air pollution in Africa is undoubtedly important but constitutes a uniquely complex challenge. Poor people are exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants, have access to inferior health services, and tend to suffer disproportionately from the effects of air pollution [ 5 ].
In settings of poverty, where safe energy alternatives are not available, legislation to curb household solid fuel combustion would place additional hardship and financial burdens on poor households. Traffic-related air pollution may gain in importance as a source of air pollution, given the predicted population and income increases in Africa in the coming decades, and the process of rapid urbanization currently underway.
The current African population of approximately 1. In this regard, a fundamental concern is that air quality monitoring capacity in Africa is weak. One study reported that only 41 cities across 10 African countries measured ambient air pollution levels, and knowledge of the sources and pathways of human exposure to air pollution across is limited to well-resourced countries, providing a weak base for policy development and priority setting [ 9 ]. African countries thus have much to lose from limited action on air pollution, but much more to gain from heeding the Joint Call for investment in air pollution reduction.
The project aims to connect all African capitals and commercial centers through an African High-Speed Train Network thereby facilitating the movement of goods, factor services and people. The increased rail connectivity holds the potential for reducing transport costs, relieving traffic congestion and lowering traffic emissions [ 11 ].
Global Statement on Air Pollution and Health: Opportunities for Africa
Emerging low-cost air quality monitoring technologies also provide hope for more extensive air quality monitoring systems and the generation of improved information for future decision-making.Often overlooked, however, are studies showing that tainted air also can provoke anxiety and unhappiness, or make it difficult to think clearly.
Research shows that pollution can make us feel sad and depressed. It can keep us indoors when we want to be outside. It can lead to violent and self-destructive behavior.
Just knowing that the air is contaminated can make us miserable. Air pollution has been linked to depression, anxiety, self-harm and suicide. Lu, an assistant professor of work and organization studies at the MIT Sloan School of Management, has had a longstanding interest in the little thought-about perils of air pollution.
So he decided to take a closer look at its psychological, economic and social impacts. In this case, Lu did not conduct his own experiment but reviewed papers that largely focused on pollutants from cars, trucks, industrial operations and power plants.
High levels of air pollution have been associated with a spike in crime. Most of the attention focuses on it causing people to die early, but very little attention is paid to potentially one of the very biggest harmful effects — the effects on our brains. For example, people tend to stay indoors when the air quality is bad, not because they want to, but because they know they are better off avoiding the tainted air.
Being stuck indoors — instead of going for a run or bike ride or a trip to the park — can cause stress and diminish your quality of life.
Moreover, simply knowing that the pollution is high can inspire health concerns. Research suggests that umpires make more bad calls on days with poor air quality.
This article ties these effects together and helps to further connect the dots. Pollution from cars, trucks and buses contributes to climate change in addition to harming human health.
Reflecting on these findings, Bernstein stressed the need to curb fossil fuel pollution, which is driving climate change in addition to eroding human health.
This goes beyond that now, and people need to start taking it seriously. About Series News. Source: Jet Propulsion Laboratory.Having better indoor air quality requires better monitoring technology. Jeffrey Rhoads, a professor in the School of Mechanical Engineeringbegan researching resonant sensors for public safety applications nearly 15 years ago.
His current work, which is funded by the Center for High Performance Buildingstransitions these sensors from laboratory environments to field-viable products with high reliability and cost-efficiency.
Based on the lessons learned, we were eventually able to develop a technology that had a broad purpose. Rhoads and his team, which includes postdoctoral research associate Nikhil Bajaj and graduate students Allison Murray and Zachary Siefker, are developing new sensors to specifically identify these hazardous air pollutants.
Resonant sensors work by vibrating in a set rhythm, but they vibrate at different speeds when a foreign compound enters their environment. To recognize volatile organic compounds, the researchers are equipping these sensors with unique surface chemistries and specialized detection mechanisms specifically designed to detect hazardous exposures.
Rhoads said that he anticipates this technology developing into a smoke alarm-like product that detects volatile organic compounds in homes and commercial buildings. However, the researchers face challenges in making this product reliable and cost-efficient enough to motivate market demand.
The team is also working on a similar technology that detects carbon dioxide emissions in order to limit unnecessary ventilation when buildings have low occupancy leading to reduced energy consumption and energy bills in homes and offices. Read more here.
For more information about the license, contact William Buchanan at wdbuchanan prf. The Purdue Office of Technology Commercialization operates one of the most comprehensive technology transfer programs among leading research universities in the U.
Services provided by this office support the economic development initiatives of Purdue University and benefit the university's academic activities.
For more information about funding and investment opportunities in startups based on a Purdue innovation, contact the Purdue Foundry at foundry prf. For more information on licensing a Purdue innovation, contact the Office of Technology Commercialization at innovation prf.
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Quick Links. February 6, Breathe right: Indoor air pollutants affecting health, well-being of people working, living in enclosed areas.Despite the magnitude of this problem, social scientists have only recently begun to pay closer attention to this issue and to test strategies for reducing IAP. In this paper, we provide a survey of the current literature on the relationship between indoor air pollution, respiratory health and economic well-being.
We then discuss the available evidence on the effectiveness of popular policy prescriptions to reduce IAP within the household. Cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fires or on traditional stoves generates high levels of health-damaging pollutants, such as particulates and carbon monoxide.
As women are primarily responsible for cooking, and as children often spend time with their mothers while they are engaged in cooking activities, women and young children are disproportionately affected. This makes solid fuels the second most important environmental cause of disease after contaminated waterborne diseases Bruce et al, and the fourth most important cause of overall excess mortality in developing countries after malnutrition, unsafe sex, and waterborne diseases Bruce et al, In addition to impacts on mortality, IAP may have long lasting effects on general health and well-being: early exposure to IAP during childhood may stifle lung development, suggesting that the cost of this pollution may continue later in life.
In fact, a growing literature indicates that environmental insults at early ages can have long lasting influences on human health and productivity e. Pitt, Rosenzweig and Hasan observe that the most comprehensive review on economic studies of health in the developing world Strauss and Thomas, does not contain any reference to this problem. Furthermore, much of the existing evidence on the consequences of IAP presents serious shortcomings, as it is largely based on observational studies and may confuse the causal effect of IAP with the effects of the determinants to its exposure.
Also troubling is the fact we have very little evidence on the impact of IAP exposure on economic outcomes, such as child school attendance and adult labor market productivity. This article will provide an overview of the literature on the relationships between indoor air pollution, traditional cooking stoves, health and economic well-being.
We first discuss the impact of fuel type on air pollution levels within the household. Next, we discuss the available evidence on the relationship between air pollution and health, and between respiratory health and productivity.
We conclude with a discussion on what is known regarding the effectiveness of popular strategies to combat indoor air pollution in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization, over three billion people worldwide are at these lower rungs, depending on biomass fuels—crop waste, dung, wood, leaves, etc.
Coal is seen as a higher quality fuel due to its efficiency and storage, and thus is higher on the energy ladder, but as Holdren and Smith describe, coal can in fact be dirtier than wood. As incomes rise, we would expect that households would substitute to higher quality fuel choices.
However, this process has been quite slow. For empirical tests of the energy ladder, see, for example, Hosier and Dowd and Chaudhuri and Pfaff This ladder describes transitions in fuel use at different levels of economic development. Dasgupta et al. Ezzati, Saleh, and Kammen and Ezzati and Kammen b used personal monitors with real-time monitoring in rural Kenya over a two-year period. Above: traditional cooking stove. Below: improved cooking stove. The next main challenge, then, is to translate these exposure levels to health impacts.
Therefore, we now turn to a discussion of the current state of the literature regarding the effects of air pollution on health. In fact, there is a substantial literature indicating that these ambient air pollution levels substantially affect human health, especially the health of infants and young children.
Dockery, et al. However, the combination of relatively low ambient air pollution concentrations in developed countries and the possibility of a nonlinear relationship between health and pollution mean that these studies may not be informative about the impacts of IAP on health in the developing world.
For example, the massive forest fires in Indonesia resulted in pollution levels that in some parts of Indonesia were comparable to IAP concentrations associated with wood burning stoves. A series of studies have found that the unusually high levels of pollution caused by the fires had significant negative impacts on health.
Jayachandran found that the smoke caused by the fires led to an increase in infant mortality rates. In fact, she estimates that the pollution that was induced by the fire led to approximately 16, fewer surviving infants in Indonesia. Emmanuel found an increase in respiratory related hospitalizations in nearby Singapore. While the evidence from fluctuations in outdoor air pollution is suggestive of potentially large impacts of IAP, it is limited in its interpretation for at least two reasons.
First, the most basic economic models predict that individuals could limit their exposure to temporarily high outdoor ambient pollution concentrations by changing their activities or purchasing protective devices e.
Second, the health impacts from the relatively brief elevated concentrations may differ from daily exposure to IAP. Indeed, Jayachandran found that the effect of the fires was stronger for households that used traditional stoves, perhaps suggesting that chronic exposure to smoke lowers resistance to further smoke exposure. Numerous studies have found associations between IAP and acute lower respiratory infection Smith et al,Ezzati and Kammen, a, bchronic obstructive pulmonary disease Bruce et al, ; WHO, and lung cancer in the case of coal smoke Mumford,Smith, All prepared soy milk cartons contain plastic.
I squeeze fresh lemon and lime juice and keep it in glass jars in the refrigerator. And we make our own hummus, either from dried chick peas or from the dry mix in the bulk bin at Whole Foods. I have no problem acquiring second-hand plastic. I also look for items made from recycled plastic, for the same reason.
This solves several plastic problems. Lately, though, I have not had the time or energy to maintain my compost bin.
But here in Oakland(as well as Berkeley and San Francisco) we have city-wide composting. We can put all of our food scraps (including meat) and food-soiled paper, along with yard waste, into our green bins.
Read more about collecting garbage without plastic trash bags. If you live inCalifornia, you should not flush cat poop unless you know for sure it is free of the parasite toxoplasma gondii, which is harmful to sea otters. Outdoor cats are susceptible because they pick it up from rodents. But the best cat toys of all. Wine corks, hands down.
The real ones, of course. Our most economical cat climber. We cleared off most of the flat surfaces in our home (tops of bookshelves, etc. But they are not new plastic. Our recipe does include a supplement powder that comes in a plastic bottle, but it lasts two months.
Read more about our less plastic homemade cat food here. So what do you do. Bring an empty water bottle through security and fill it up at the drinking fountain on the other side. Bring your own sandwiches or containers of fruit, cut veggies, trail mix, or other snacks. But avoid liquid or semi-solid foods when flying.
Indoor air pollution, health and economic well-being
In fact, most cafes these days will give a discount for bringing your own mug. And your mug can come in handy in hotels that provide plastic or Styrofoam cups in the room instead of real glasses.
Instead, fill up your own reusable travel- size containers at home. And they all come in plastic packages or bottles. Find real food to eat. Do a little grocery shopping when you reach your destination and stock your hotel room with healthy snacks in less packaging.Selecting a bidding option.
You can choose from a number of different bid setups for controlling Facebook advertising costs.
What Are the Emotional, Mental — And Economic Costs of Air Pollution?
You can bid for clicks, impressions, or your desired objective (e. If you choose the recommended (and selected by default) option of bidding based on your objective, your bid will automatically be set to help you reach your objective, whereas bidding for clicks or impressions allows for more customization. Choose between daily or lifetime budget. As an advertiser, you can choose to set up a daily budget or a lifetime budget.
A daily budget controls how much you will spend on a specific campaign per day. Your ads and sponsored stories stop showing once you hit your daily ad budget, helping your budget Facebook advertising rates based on each daily cycle. Lifetime budget lets you select how much you want to spend over the entire span of time a campaign is scheduled to run.
Want to change you ad campaign. Images are a powerful tool you can utilize for creating engaging, eye popping Facebook ads. Learn how to make the most of your Facebook image ads. Go crazy with the images. Posts and Facebook PPC ads with images get much higher engagement than those without, as they help your ad or post stand out from a flooded news feed. Add multiple images to your ads. Add multiple images to a Facebook PPC ad for extra variety and to test how different images coupled with your ad text perform.
You can upload up to six images to accompany your ads at no extra cost. Facebook has a grid tool to help ensure that your image ad follows the guidelines, but as Jon Loomer has noted, sometimes you can get around this simply by moving your text around slightly. What size image should you use.
Facebook recommends uploading an image that is 1200x627 pixels for your ads. Facebook advertising has some incredible targeting capabilities that can help you tailor your message and target your desired audiences. Take full advantage of Facebook advertising targeting options to create highly successful Facebook ad campaigns.
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